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8 Jul 2013 CAUN Strategy Call TitanPad archive – Water SDG

This titanpad is dedicated to the development of an SDG: Universal Access to Clean Drinking Water and Waste Management  It will be offered as an amendment to the four Reports on which the    global agenda for sustainable development will be based until 2030.
Our    combined preliminary work on this titanpad will be cleaned up and  then   submitted to our whole Commons Cluster mailing list, all UN   Ambassadors,  and Heads of State and Government immediately following the Friday, June 28th strategy meeting (See below). This deadline is important so that it can inform their input in time for the July 12th deadline. 
We    shall then continue to work on developing the content of this  titanpad   so that we can submit a more detailed version to the above at  the end  of  our second strategy meeting on Monday July 8th. Then we  shall  submit  our final version to the UN Secretariat by the July 12th   deadline.
 
The two strategy meetings will be held on Friday, June 28th and Monday July 8th.
 
Both meetings will be held from 7:00-9:00 am PDT, 10:00-12:00 EDT, 4:00-6:00 pm CETCall in number +1 218 339 4600. Access Code 999518#
 
Archived Sidebar Notes

June 28, 2013

10:32MyraPatrick – Do we know how much of the world's water has gone into private hands? What percentage?
10:33Jessie Henshaw: What about mentioning that development takes ever more water, and those who can pay for it get it.
10:35Jessie Henshaw: Of course, development also takes ever more energy too, and those who can pay for it get the supplies of that too.
10:37PatrickI am not sure, but it is becoming the main issue it seems
10:38PatrickWater foot print is good related to consumption patterns
10:38PatrickBerlin just got its water back….
10:39Patrickso it is an ongoign struggle, especially for advocay, less for lobby
10:40Jessie Henshaw: Who did Berlin take "their" water back from? With growing uses and users, who wins?? Not the commons it seems
10:44Patrickprivate companies took on teh water supply, now it is back in City legislation
10:45Patrickthis was an important milestone for german water 'market'

July 8, 2013

8:39Akiwa Gizzel: Add new content to line 67-85
8:40Akiwa Gizzel: Human Affect begins internship today so I will be in and out of the meeting today.
8:40Akiwa Gizzel: Human Affect begins at 9AM
9:10LisinkaGood luck, Akiwa!! Such great work you do and so varied your programme is!!

 
YOUR   ADDITIONS AND  MODIFICATIONS ARE IMPORTANT. PLEASE ADD IT THESE TO THE   TEXT AS  SUCCINCTLY AS POSSIBLE WITHIN THE FORMAT BELOW:
1. Formulation of the title of the SDG
2 Rationale
3. Targets and indicators relating to each separate target;
4. Reflections on complexities and implementation.
5. To which elements of the Reports does this suggestion relate?
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1. Formulation of the title of the SDG
2 Rationale
3. Targets and indicators relating to each separate target;
4. Reflections on complexities and implementation.
5. To which elements of the Reports does this suggestion relate?
                                            Title: 
                Access to clean drinking water for all
 
    TARGETS–EACH WITH RELEVANT INDICATORS
 
Please note: To be useful, both targets and indicators must be measurable. Targets tend to include a time line; indicators are expressed as percentages, proportions, ratios, (growth)rates, shares.               
 
    The HLP suggests the following goals on water:
    
6. Achieve Universal Access to Water and Sanitation
 
Target 6a. Provide universal access to safe drinking water at home, and in schools, health centers, and refugee camps 1, 2
Indicators 6 aa: Percentage of people that have access to clean drinking water
Indicator 6a b:Percentage of people that have access to safe drinking water in the home or in the immediate surroundings
Indicator 6 a b Percentage of students starting with Primary School that have access to safe drinking water
Indicator 6a c: Percentage of health centers with access to clean drinking water.
Percentage of refugee camps that have access to sufficinet clean drinking water to meet the needs of all inhabitants.
Indicator: Percentage of water privatized.
 
Target 6b. End open defecation and ensure universal access to sanitation at school and work, and increase access to sanitation at home by x% 1, 2
Indicator 6ba. Percentage of people that have access to sanitation
-at home
-at school
-at work
Target 6c. Bring freshwater withdrawals in line with supply and increase water efficiency in agriculture by x%,
industry by y% and urban areas by z%
 
Target 6d. Recycle or treat all municipal and industrial wastewater prior to discharge 1, 3
 
 
        Our own list of targets, goals and indicators:
                                            TITLE
ALL  PEOPLE HAVE ACCESS TO CLEAN DRINKING WATER, SANITATION AS HUMAN RIGHT  BY THE YEAR 2020? 2025? (Comment by Lisinka: chose this wording since it  echoed that of the UN GA's resolution on the subject. See Reflections  point 1.)
 
(See above)
Target 1. All People in a country have access to clean drinking water.
        Indicator 1 a: Proportion of people in a country who have access to clean drinking water
        Indicator 1 b Proportion of country with access to clean water sources (unpolluted springs, water sanitation plants, etc.)
 
Target 2. All People in a country have access to sanitati
                                       
                                        REFLECTIONS AND  ACTIONS
 
 
Recognition of the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation by the United Nations General Assembly and the UN Human Rights Council is an important step towards ensuring water security at the individual and community levels. The UN resolution on the human right to water and sanitation is a catalyst for further policy discussion between stakeholders and across sectors, and in the development of programmes that make possible the full realization of the rights of individuals and communities. A human rights-based approach to water security addresses critical gaps and bottlenecks, and emphasizes the establishment of regulatory functions and mechanisms for efficiency, participation and accountability.
(U.N Analytical Brief  22/3/13)
 
All Human Rights have their basis and foundations in freshwater security. For it to be even possible for all people in a country or in the world, to have access to clean drinking water or even for there to be freshwater it is vital to stabilize the global freshwater cycle. It is this cycle, which determines the quantity and quality of freshwater throughout the world. If this cycle is not protected and secured major freshwater problems will be experienced within the rich developed countries as well as the poorer countries and global poverty will rise alarmingly in relation to this.
 
Environmental laws often dictate the planning and actions that agencies take to manage watersheds. Some laws require that planning be done, others can be used to make a plan legally enforceable and others set out the ground rules for what can and cannot be done in development and planning. Most countries and states have their own laws regarding watershed management.
Those concerned about aquatic habitat protection have a right to participate in the laws and planning processes that affect aquatic habitats. By having a clear understanding of whom to speak to and how to present the case for keeping our waterways clean a member of the public can become an effective watershed protection advocate
 
 NEW CONTENT 7/8/2013:
 
 Urban water architectual infrastructure designs should be sutainable systems that are risk-proof, adaptive, flexible, robust, cost-effective and ideally inclusive of:
 
 1.  Structural and non-strutural disaster-response risk – management plans.
 2.  A no – regrets approach needs to be introduced for flood and drought management.
 3.  Diversification of the sources of water supply can be ensured with appropriate combinations of new holistic-sustainable storage facilities, groundwater mangement, inter-basin water transfer, water conservation, recycling ad desalination (safe, non chemical based practices).
 
Stormwate is a resource and can be managed at all levels, from individual households to the entire built area of a city.
 
Regulations and laws should be enforced to attain::
 
1.  Reduction of civilian and industrial pollution, waste and  dumping into natural water systems 
2.  Increase of water efficiency
3.  Reduction of cumulative impacts of urban development to protect the environment and water resources.
4.  Restriction on the way land is contaminated during unstainable development practices.
5.  Water quality standards that are holistic and assist in achieving and monotoring sustainable water practices for both civilan populations and industries.
6.  Technology improvements that decrease water leakage as well as adopting water saving devices and sanitation modes that are less water-intensive. 
7. Protection of aquatic ecosystems and habitats
 
 Comment: should the following paras lines approximately 95- 130  be placed under para 1 on line 70?? These talk about the bigger picture and the rest goes into the nitty gritty detail.
“Water security is also the foundation for food and energy security, and for overall long-term social and economic development. Water underpins health, nutrition, equity, gender equality, well-being and  economic progress, especially in  developing countries. But equitable water supply and quality problems are also  threatening the security of  some of the most developed countries in the world. In the USA, for  example, water availability has already been identified as a  national  security concern, threatening its ability to meet the country’s water,  food and energy needs.”   
(U.N Water Security August 2012) 
 
To achieve universal access to clean drinking water and sanitation, as stated in the Human Right to Water and in the recent HLP report, it is fundamental and vital to have a healthy water supply. This can only be achieved and assured by securing the freshwater cycle, which quantity and quality of freshwater is utterly dependent upon. Since Rio+20 it been affirmed and clarified by experts that the ecosystems   and environments which maintain essential services needed for the very survival of  life  on Earth, such as the hydrological cycle, are  threatened with collapse if not given appropriate and  immediate  attention.
 
 “Maintaining   the integrity of ecosystems before they become compromised is an   essential component of achieving water security and reducing the   potential for conflicts. The continuous pace of human development is   threatening the capacity of ecosystems to adapt, raising concerns that   ecosystems will reach a  tipping point after which they are no longer   able to provide sustaining functions and services, and will become   unable to recover their integrity and  functions (Maas, 2012).”  
(U.N Water Security August 2012).
 
 
It was very clearly stated in August 2012 by U.N Water that achieving freshwater security is essential for the realization of all MDG and Post  2015 Goals
 
“The   magnitude of the global freshwater crisis and the risks associated  with  it, have been greatly underestimated. One billion people on earth  are  without reliable  supplies of water and more than 2 billion people  lack  basic sanitation. Water is  critical to the attainment of the  United  Nations Millennium Development Goals  whose targets are set to  expire in  2015.”
 (U.N Water Security August 2012)
 
It   has recently been officially recognized and confirmed by U.N Water Security and other departments within the U.N, that the protection of  the  environments which regulate global freshwater is central to water  security and is a matter of national, international and global  security.  
 
“Ensuring   that ecosystems are protected and conserved is central to achieving   water security – both for people and for nature.   Ecosystems are vital to sustaining the quantity and quality of water   available within a watershed, on which both nature and people rely.   Maintaining the integrity of ecosystems is essential for supporting the   diverse needs of humans, including domestic, agricultural, energy and   industrial water use, and for the sustainability of ecosystems,   including protecting the water-provisioning services they provide.”   (U.N Analytical Brief  22/3/13)
 
 
“In March 2011, high-level experts from around the world were invited to Toronto, Canada, to meet with members of the Inter Action Council about the status of the world’s freshwater supply, as it relates to global security issues. These experts reported that that the global water crisis is real and that there is urgency in addressing the growing number of security risks associated with threatened water supply and quality. They also, however, expressed hope and identified opportunities that can be realized by the timely triggering of change in policies, institutions, and the way society thinks about water.” (U.N Water Security paper Aug 2012)
 
 Unlike many resources such as coal, oil and gas the fresh water system is a renewable and regenerative one. It has the ability of being replenished through a combination of natural processes and the passage of time. However it can only be renewed through the process of the water cycle, where water from seas, lakes, rivers, and dams evaporates, forms clouds, and returns to earth through precipitation. This cycle is utterly dependent upon indigenous mountain forests and plants. 
 
 A watershed or drainage basin is the area of land that provides water to a stream, river, reservoir, lake, or estuary. John Wesley Powell,scientist geographer, put it best when he said that a watershed is:
"That area of land, a bounded hydrologic system, within which all living things are inextricably linked by their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded that they become part of a community."
Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. They cross county, state, and national boundaries. In the continental US, there are 2,110 watersheds; including Hawaii, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, there are 2,267 watersheds.
 
Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary.[1] Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply, water quality, drainage, stormwater runoff,water rights, and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds. Landowners, land use agencies, stormwater management experts, environmental specialists, water use surveyors and communities all play an integral part in the management of a watershed.
 
In an agricultural landscape, common contributors to water pollution are nutrients and sediment which typically enter stream systems after rainfall washes them off poorly managed agricultural fields, called surface runoff, or flushes them out of the soil through leaching. These types of pollutants are considered nonpoint source pollution because the exact point where the pollutant originated cannot be identified. Such pollutants remain a major issue for water ways because the difficulty to control their sources hinders any attempt to limit the pollution.[2] Point source pollution originates a specific point of contamination such as if a manure containment structure fails and its contents enter the drainage system or when a factory discharges its waste directly into a body of water using a pipe.
In urban landscapes, issues of soil loss through erosion, from construction sites for example, and nutrient enrichment from lawnfertilizers exist. Point source pollution, such as effluent from waste water treatment plants and other industries play a much larger role in this setting. Also, the greatly increased area of impervious surfaces, such as concrete, combined with modern storm drainage systems, allows for water and the contaminants that it can carry with it to exit the urban landscape quickly and end up in the nearest stream.
 
 
 
Identify Aboriginal, First Nations and Indigenous Peoples that have ongoing traditional knowledge practices that protect and maintain safe, holistic, healthy water practices within forest, tropical, everglades, mountainous, deserts, glacier and waterways.  
 Partner with these Aboriginal, First Nations and Indigenous Peoples in protecting their safe practices that can be duplicated in regions for the protection and rehabiliation of watersheds.
 Water polution contamination from farmland washoff into everglades watersheds are in need of massive, holistic cleanup measures. 
 
“The availability and especially the quality of water are strongly influenced by forests and thus depend on proper forest management” (FAO 2007).
 
It is therefore of paramount importance and concern as to how to achieve the continuum and integrity of these ecosystems. Mountain regions with their snow and glaciers are a major ecosystem and  composite of environments essential for the quantity  and quality of  fresh water globally. They are an interconnected and essential part of  the global freshwater cycle. They affect freshwater security for the whole world. It is vital for global water security that the key  roles  that ecosystems, especially mountains, glaciers, mountain forests  and  wetlands play in maintaining the global freshwater cycle along with  the  quantity and quality of freshwater  worldwide are recognized and  that all supportive efforts that protect, sustainably manage and restore  these ecosystems  are given immediate and urgent attention. This was emphasized and agreed upon by world governments in at the UNCSD in Rio  in 2012: 
 
"We   recognize the key role that ecosystems play in maintaining water  quantity and quality and  support actions within the respective national  boundaries to protect and  sustainably manage these ecosystems."   (The Future We Want RES/A/66/288 para.122)
 
Given that the protection and  conservation of all Eco-systems, which maintain quality and quantity of  global freshwater is central to all National and International security,  it becomes  imperative that actions, which support, restore and  conserve these Eco-systems, are  taken imminently. 
 
Perhaps the following should also be at the top since it deals with general factors.–under the other paras that have been moved up.
“Water,  economic and environmental security are inherently interconnected.    Human life is intimately linked to, and utterly dependent on, the    functions and services provided  by freshwater ecosystems. Safe,  reliable water supplies, flood protection, commercial and subsistence    fisheries, cultural and spiritual values –  the very foundations of    economic development and human well-being – all depend on maintaining    the integrity of the planet’s aquatic ecosystems.”  
(U.N Water Security August 2012). 
 
 The making of new legislation, which protects these environments from deforestation, mining, hydro-dams, fracking and all similarly environmentally devastating activities is essential and necessary in the light of  present  knowledge. Regardless of all other considerations, if water security is not incorporated and made central to the Post 2015 Goals, then all Post 2015 Goals and Sustainable Development Goals will be impossible  to achieve and the achievements to date with mitigating global poverty  will be lost. Freshwater security needs to be looked at in the light of this new knowledge released by world experts over the past 12 months. 
 
A key aspect of water security is the “Preservation and protection of ecosystems in water allocation and management systems in order to maintain their ability to deliver and sustain the functioning of essential ecosystem services.” (U.N Analytical Brief  22/3/13)
 
 The freshwater security issue cannot be ignored or side-lined for other interests. National, International and Global Security demands top  priority given  present knowledge, conditions and circumstances. 
 
In many countries, national security has historically been defined as military security. It is now understood that military might is only one element in the human security equation, and that water can play a determining role in international, national and transboundary conflicts. Although real potential exists for conflict over water, water tensions can also offer potential for cooperation between states, so long as the underlying institutions and capacity are in place for such cooperation to happen.
(U.N Water Security August 2012).
 
The new Post 2015 agenda offers a way whereby states, nations and private  bodies can create  cooperative relations and action plans for working  collectively to  solve the common problems of freshwater insecurity Only through protecting and restoring the environments, which the freshwater cycle is dependent upon can we potentially  mitigate environmental disasters and conflicts related to food and water  scarcity Only this way can we possibly achieve universal access to  freshwater worldwide.
 
    Good water governance is essential to achieving water security, and requires well-designed and empowered institutions with supporting legislative and policy instruments. Achieving water security requires institutional, legal and regulatory support and capacity for change, adaptive management structures, new forms of relationships, and multi- layered models capable of integrating complex natural and social dimensions. Governance structures must be adapted to local conditions and needs, applied at various levels so that they mutually reinforce and complement one another.  (U.N Analytical Brief  22/3/13)
 
 
  • About 48.7% of the world's land drains to the Atlantic Ocean. In North America, surface water drains to the Atlantic via the Saint Lawrence River and Great Lakes basins, the Eastern Seaboard of the United States, the Canadian Maritimes, and most ofNewfoundland and Labrador. Nearly all of South America east of the Andes also drains to the Atlantic, as does most of Westernand Central Europe and the greatest portion of western Sub-Saharan Africa. The three major mediterranean seas of the world also flow to the Atlantic:
  • The American Mediterranean Sea (the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) basin includes most of the U.S. interior between theAppalachian and Rocky Mountains, a small part of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, eastern Central America, the islands of the Caribbean and the Gulf, and a small part of northern South America.
  • The European Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa (through the Nile River), Southern, Central, and Eastern Europe, Turkey, and the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon, and Syria.
  • The Arctic Ocean drains most of Western and Northern Canada east of the Continental Divide, northern Alaska and parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States, the north shore of the Scandinavian peninsula in Europe, and much of central and northern Russia.
  • Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the Pacific Ocean. Its basin includes much of China, southeastern Russia, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, most of Indonesia and Malaysia, the Philippines, all of the Pacific Islands, the northeast coast of Australia, and Canada and the United States west of the Continental Divide (including most of Alaska), as well as western Central America and South America west of the Andes.
  • The Indian Ocean's drainage basin also comprises about 13% of Earth's land. It drains the eastern coast of Africa, the coasts of theRed Sea and the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent, Burma, and most of Australia.
  • The Southern Ocean drains Antarctica. Antarctica comprises approximately eight percent of the Earth's land.
 
Watershed Central:  Officially unveiled in 2009, Watershed Central was developed by a multidisciplinary team within the EPA in response to an apparent gap in terms of a one-stop shop for watershed tools and data. Over 100 people across state, local, federal, and tribal governments contributed to an online vision for Watershed Central. A key element of the vision was to help managers discover the correct tools to use to support the various steps of developing a watershed management plan, and secondly, to create an environment that would foster the exchange of lessons learned and best management practices across the nation
 
  • Provides an integrated water quality assessment and management context for EPA’s watershed tools and science to expedite remediation of American waters.
  • Provides a mechanism to document analyses, decisions, and watershed plan effectiveness.
  • Builds capacity of local watershed organizations to develop and implement comprehensive watershed management programs to protect and restore water resources.
  • Provides a means for improving the consistency and compatibility of various data elements provided by public agencies across the country.
  • Supports decreased time-frames for development of scientifically credible and defensible watershed plans.
  • Informs the Agency and collaborative agencies regarding research gaps and impact of products.
  • Integrates good science with regulatory drivers and social and economic incentives.
  • Leverages knowledge and capability across Federal, State, local agencies, tribes, etc.
 
Issue oriented, like Tar Sands, privatization, land grabbing and mobilizing action on WASH linking water with community, not to keep it too general, issue of sanitation is now weaker also than it was in MDGs and water as nexus is not worked out how it is right now
Global Interfaith WASH Alliance GIWA (sent out per mail already)
 
How to frame SDG input that creates frame to get active on specifics like issues mentioned above while being still generic?
 
 WATER PRIVATIZATION
 
 Why privatization of water became an exceedingly growing industry in the 20th Century:
 
  • Widespread privatization efforts grew in the late 20th Century when international financial institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund required countries seeking assistance to deregulate, abolish subsidies, and even sell much of their water systems and infrastructure to private investors.  
  • The rationale was that privatization would result in more efficiency and less corruption.  Private investors would have the wherewithal and the incentive to build, maintain, and upgrade expensive water facilities in order to turn a profit, whereas governments in many of these countries had been doing a poor job of stewarding their publicly-financed (and often starved) water industries.  
  • These privatization programs continue today in many heavily indebted countries which continue to seek loans and aid from international institutions.
  • It is estimated that around 15% of the almost 4 billion people in the world who do have access to clean water and sanitation get it from a private industry.
 
Government and Private Water Investment
 
  • If you look across the spectrum of activity required to extract, treat, and deliver freshwater, you will find that usually some parts of the process are owned and/or managed by the public sector, some parts are contracted out to private companies and vendors, and some parts are an indistinguishable mix of subsidies, public-private investments, and market forces.
  • In some places the public sector (government) may have a monopoly because it controls treatment systems and pipes.
  • In other places, private industry may have a monopoly, as in areas where water vendors sell to households that are not reached by public utilities.  
  • Usually, it is a mix.  Incentives to invest in water are great for both the public and private sectors – for the public in terms of the large yield in human development from small improvements, for the private in terms of money that can be made from distributing a valuable universally-used resource.
 
Water privatization effects:
 
  • In their efforts to recoup often significant investments, private water companies usually increase prices on the water they provide.  In some cases, these price increases have been so hefty as to knock poor consumers out of the market entirely, leaving them, again, with no access to water because they cannot afford it even when it is physically accessible.
  • The UN Development Program notes that privatization has hurt many in the developing world, where poor people pay some of the highest prices for water.  For example, the poorest 20% of households in El Salvador, Jamaica, and Nicaragua spend up to 10% of their income on water.    
  • Privatization schemes often appear undemocratic in that they exclude the citizenry from the decision-making processes in what was formerly a public utility.  
  • Privatization often results in local job losses as multinational corporations and conglomerates both reduce work forces through improved efficiencies and transfer jobs to workers in other countries.
  • When profit is a motive in water provision, less lucrative services often suffer.  Efficiency dictates that resources go where they produce the highest return – this means poor rural areas and other hard-to-serve customer bases get lower priority.
  • In some cases, private companies have retreated from particularly poor areas where returns on investment have been low or from areas where local resistance and protests against privatization have made for bad public relations.  In these cases, the cost of picking up the pieces is often higher for local governments than it might have been had the private companies not been there in the first place.
  • Cases in which privatization has worked well usually include special voucher programs whereby purchases for those unable to afford water are subsidized by the government or aid organizations.
 
In the UN World Water Report of 2006, it was noted that "there is enough water for everyone" and "water insufficiency is often due to mismanagement, corruption, lack of appropriate institutions, bureaucratic inertia and a shortage of investment in both human capacity and physical infrastructure".(source) That is, a lesser known predator of world water to the commonly discussed pollution and climate warming is privatization by large corporations, and it is a large cause of water scarcity.
 
WATER PRIVATIZATION PROJECTS:
 
Large and Super-Hydroelectric Damns are many times funded by foreign entities, corporations and private institutions with a core interest financial return.  Such practices can cause instability, conflict and security issues.  Full consideration must be taken into consideration prior establishing commitments to hydro-electric damn development.
 
WATER PRIVATIZATION CONCERNS:
 
Water privatization schemes throughout the world have a track record of skyrocketing prices, water quality problems, deteriorating service and a loss of local control. 
 
Vulnerable to corruption and operating according to a profit-driven corporate agenda fundamentally incompatible with delivering an essential service, private water companies are failing to provide citizens with safe, affordable water. Private corporations seek to increase profit margins by cutting costs; hence privatization is almost always accompanied by lay-offs.
 
AlLTERNATIVES TO WATER PRIVATIZATION:
 
Most people are not convinced that the answer can be found in ceding their public water systems to private profit-making corporations. Instead, around the world, local communities have developed their own creative water management solutions. Let us explore a range of dynamic alternative models of publicly-owned or collectively-owned water services that focus on democratic participation, local accountability and community activism.
 
Community, Public Water Partnerships:
 
Private companies have offered themselves as the solution, but have not posted a good record. Many cities have concluded that their vital water and wastewater services could be operated more efficiently in the public sphere. A number of communities have reorganized operation and management under local, public control. 
 
  • Saves money, 
  • Rewarded employees
  • maintained or improved water quality 
  • kept money in the community
 
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES INHERENT RIGHT TO WATER:
 
The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity.  Hydro is also a flexible source of electricity since plants can be ramped up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. 
 
However, damming interrupts:
 
  • The natural flow of rivers  
  • Harms local ecosystems
Build large dams involves: 
  • Displacing peoples 
  • Wildlife
 
Aboriginal, First Peoples and Indigenous Peoples have been greatly effected and affected by the building and development of hydroelectric damns.
Little if any comparable life sustaining resources are ensured in the midst human displacement.
Decimation of culture and traditional life and living is disrupted, displaced and dismantled.
Families are torn apart and cease to recovery life within sustainable surroundings.
Economies, ecologies, environments and sociological networks are destroyed leaving ones in emotional, physical and psychological distress.
Massive loss of life and good health accompany being removed from original land, territory and sustaining habitat.
Numerous wildlife species, organisms and aquatic life networks are lost forever or may be immensely damaged by the shift in the flow of water.
Restitution, redress, reparations and reciprocity of past, current and future hydroelectric damn disruption, dismantlization and displacement must be addressed with full measure of comparable sustainable resources put into action that assist in establishing cultural and traditional economies, ecologies, environments and soiological networks in recovering, rebuilding and developing the future they denote as being necessary, just and comparable to their hope for a sustainable, holistic future.
 
CONSIDERATION OF MARINE LIFE IN REGARDS TO CLIMATE CHANGE, IN THE MIDST OF INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE EFFECTS AND AFFECTS ON OXYGEN, FOOD SOURCES, LANDMASS, HUMANITY AND WILDLIFE CAN BE DEVASTING, CAUSING UNREPRABLE DAMAGE TO HUMAN AND WILDLIFE – LIFE AND LIVING AND PLANENT MOTHER EARTH.
 
Large reservoirs required for the operation of hydroelectric power stations result in:
 
  •  Submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams, 
  •  Destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests, marshland and grasslands. 
  • The loss of land is often exacerbated by habitat fragmentation of surrounding areas caused by the reservoir.
  • Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site.
  • Generation of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment.
  • Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to scouring of river beds and loss of riverbanks.
  • Since turbine gates are often opened intermittently, rapid or even daily fluctuations in river flow are observed.
 
PREVENTION AND IMPLEMENTATION:
 
  • In agricultural systems, common practices include the use of buffer strips, grassed waterways, the reestablishment of wetlands, and forms of sustainable agriculture practices such as conservation tillage, crop rotation and intercropping. 
  • After certain practices are installed, it is important to continually monitor these systems to ensure that they are working properly in terms of improving environmental quality.
  • In urban settings, managing areas to prevent soil loss and control stormwater flow are a few of the areas that receive attention.
  •  A few practices that are used to manage stormwater before it reache  34s a channel are retention ponds, filtering systems and wetlands.
  •   It is important that stormwater is given an opportunity to infiltrate so that the soil and vegetation can act as a "filter" before the water reaches nearby streams or lakes. In the case of soil erosion prevention, a few common practices include the use of silt fences, landscape fabricwith grass seed and hydroseeding. 
  • The main objective in all cases is to slow water movement to prevent soil transport.
 
REFLECTIONS
                                
1.  On July 28th, 2010, the General Assembly of the United Nations passed resolution GA 10967 recognizing access to clean water, sanitation as Human Right, by recorded vote of 122 in favour, none against, 41 abstentions. It is possible to see water and sanitation as a commons resource.
 
 It is possible to see freshwater and sanitation as a commons  resource, which it naturally and obviously is and to  secure  it for future generations by securing the common natural environments which it is dependent upon. Freshwater security is the common foundation for all environmental stability and security and all Sustainable Development Goals.
 
Water security needs to be included in the formulation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDG process must incorporate a goal and related targets for achieving water security, as this will address multiple priority development areas under consideration: conflict and fragility; environmental sustainability; growth and employment; health, hunger, food and nutrition; inequities; energy; and of course, water. It is safe to state that investment in water security is a long-term pay-off for human development and economic growth, with immediate visible short-term gains.  (U.N Analytical Brief  22/3/13)
 
Issue oriented, like Tar Sands, privatization, land grabbing and mobilizing action on WASH linking water with community, not to keep it too general, issue of sanitation is now weaker also than it was in MDGs and water as nexus is not worked out how it is right now
Global Interfaith WASH Alliance GIWA (sent out per mail already)
 
How to frame SDG input that creates frame to get active on specifics like issues mentioned above while being still generic?
 
A large proportion of all life on Earth exists in the oceans. Exactly how large the proportion is unknown, since many ocean species are still to be discovered. Oceans cover about 71% of the Earth's surface, and because of their depth they contain about 300 times the habitable volume of the terrestrial habitats on Earth. The habitats studied in marine biology include everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be trapped in surface tensionbetween the ocean and atmosphere, to the depths of the oceanic trenches, sometimes 10,000 meters or more beneath the surface of the ocean. Specific habitats include coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass meadows, tidepools, muddy, sandy and rocky bottoms, and the open ocean (pelagic) zone, where solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary. The organisms studied range from microscopic phytoplankton and zooplankton to huge cetaceans (whales) 30 meters (98 feet) in length.
Marine life is a vast resource, providing food, medicine, and raw materials, in addition to helping to support recreation and tourism all over the world. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the very nature of our planet. Marine organisms contribute significantly to the oxygen cycle, and are involved in the regulation of the Earth's climate.[1] Shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land.[2]
Many species are economically important to humans, including food fish. It is also becoming understood that the well-being of marine organisms and other organisms are linked in very fundamental ways. The human body of knowledge regarding the relationship between life in the sea and important cycles is rapidly growing, with new discoveries being made nearly every day. These cycles include those of matter (such as the carbon cycle) and of air (such as Earth's respiration, and movement of energy through ecosystems including the ocean). Large areas beneath the ocean surface still remain effectively unexplored.
 
Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. They generate 32% of the world's net primary production. They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolvedcompounds, especially salts, in the water. Approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has an average salinity of 35 parts per thousand (ppt) of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems.
 
A classification of marine habitats
Marine ecosystems can be divided into many zones depending upon water depth and shoreline features. The oceanic zone is the vast open part of the ocean where animals such as whales, sharks, and tuna live. The benthic zone consists of substrates below water where many invertebrates live. Theintertidal zone is the area between high and low tides; in this figure it is termed the littoral zone. Other near-shore (neritic) zones can include estuaries, salt marshes, coral reefs, lagoons and mangrove swamps. In the deep water,hydrothermal vents may occur where chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria form the base of the food web.
Classes of organisms found in marine ecosystems include brown algae,dinoflagellates, corals, cephalopods, echinoderms, and sharks. Fishes caught in marine ecosystems are the biggest source of commercial foods obtained from wild populations.
Environmental problems concerning marine ecosystems include unsustainable exploitation of marine resources (for example overfishing of certain species), marine pollution, climate change, and building on coastal areas.
 
Freshwater ecosystems cover 0.80% of the Earth's surface and inhabit 0.009% of its total water. They generate nearly 3% of its net primary production. Freshwater ecosystems contain 41% of the world's known fish species.
There are three basic types of freshwater ecosystems:
  • Lentic: slow moving water, including pools, ponds, and lakes.
  • Lotic: faster moving water, for example streams and rivers.
  • Wetlands: areas where the soil is saturated or inundated for at least part of the time.
 
The construction of dykes, and dams, has negative consequences for individual wetlands and entire watersheds.  Their closeness to lakes and rivers means that they are often developed for human settlement.  Once settlements are constructed and protected by dykes, the settlements then become vulnerable to land subsidence and ever increasing risk of flooding.   The Louisiana coast around New Orleans is a well-known example; the Danube Delta in Europe is another.
 
Aquatic ecosystems perform many important environmental functions. For example, they recycle nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife. Aquatic ecosystems are also used for human recreation, and are very important to the tourism industry, especially in coastal regions.
The health of an aquatic ecosystem is degraded when the ecosystem's ability to absorb a stress has been exceeded. A stress on an aquatic ecosystem can be a result of physical, chemical or biological alterations of the environment. Physical alterations include changes in water temperature, water flow and light availability. Chemical alterations include changes in the loading rates of biostimulatory nutrients, oxygen consuming materials, and toxins. Biological alterations include over-harvesting of commercial species and the introduction of exotic species. Human populations can impose excessive stresses on aquatic ecosystems. There are many examples of excessive stresses with negative consequences. Consider three. The environmental history of the Great Lakes of North America illustrates this problem, particularly how multiple stresses, such as water pollution, over-harvesting and invasive species can combine. The Norfolk Broadlands in England illustrate similar decline with pollution and invasive species. Lake Pontchartrain along the Gulf of Mexico illustrates the negative effects of different stresses including levee construction, logging of swamps, invasive species and salt water intrusion.
 
The salinity of the water body is also a determining factor in the kinds of species found in the water body. Organisms in marine ecosystems tolerate salinity, while many freshwater organisms are intolerant of salt. The degree of salinity in an estuary or delta may is an important control upon the type of wetland (fresh, intermediate, or brackish), and the associated animal species. Dams built upstream may reduce spring flooding, and reduce sediment accretion, and may therefore lead to saltwater intrusion in coastal wetlands.
Freshwater used for irrigation purposes often absorb levels of salt that are harmful to freshwater organisms.
 
“Water,  economic and environmental security are inherently interconnected.    Human life is intimately linked to, and utterly dependent on, the    functions and services provided  by freshwater ecosystems. Safe,  reliable water supplies, flood protection, commercial and subsistence    fisheries, cultural and spiritual values –  the very foundations of    economic development and human well-being – all depend on maintaining    the integrity of the planet’s aquatic ecosystems.”  
(U.N Water Security August 2012). 
 
Aquatic ecosystems and environments include oceans, lakes, wetlands, mountains, rain forests, mountain forests, mountain snows and glaciers. All these ecosystems are vital components of the global fresh water cycle which provides quantity and quality of water. 
The most recent research compiled by the U.N Water Task Force affirms that the protection, conservation and restoration of these ecosystems is vital and central to water security worldwide. It has also been confirmed that water security is central and essential for national and international security.
 
Given the increasing importance placed on water security and the international recognition by the UNGA of the individual need for water to ensure human security, UN-Water Task Force on Water Security was created to address these challenges – The primary task of the task force was to produce an Analytical Brief on water security globally.The Analytical Brief defines the position of the UN system on water security and identifies avenues through which water security concerns can be addressed, including but not limited to the UN Security Council. Further, the Task Force serves to represent the perspectives of UN-Water Members and act as the liaison to the broader UN System and international community on matters related to water security. – 
 
In the light of this most up to date information coming from such emminent sources it would seem that water security should be made central to all Sustainable Development and Post 2015 Goals.
 

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