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Needs Site Plan

This page presents links to pages that already exist under the "Needs" section of NORA, as well as listings of pages that are planned. The indentation pattern shows which pages are "parents" of which other pages; a planned page will already be listed in its parent page (or sometimes in its "grandparent"). As pages get written, planned "child" themes will emerge leading to the listing of additional planned pages on this page.

Note: Duplicating the same page titles should be avoided, whether within this page or among the three site plans for needs, organizational forms and resources. Thus, although pages once written may have any number of links to different needs, organizational forms and resources, they should be listed only once here under the "parent" that seems most directly applicable.





  • rainwater harvesting
  • wells
  • cisterns
  • integration of rainwater harvesting into existing systems
  • technical solutions for greater efficiency
  • effective management of public systems for efficiency and equity
  • effective regulation of private systems for efficiency and equity
  • cooperative management


Being at home:

  • participatory urban planning
  • participatory development planning (for all new projects that change a place or may displace people)
  • providing resources for residents of shantytowns, favelas etc. to gradually upgrade their dwellings based on their own work efforts
  • urban layout along lines of Christopher Alexander
  • Complete streets:
  • community development
  • cultural centers for immigrant or minority communities, or that promote cultural interaction among communities that are in a tense relationship with each other
  • provisions for dual citizenship
  • provisions to allow non-citizens to vote in local elections
  • educational and cultural programs for immigrants so that they can better integrate in the host society; for non-migrants so that they can better understand the immigrant communities
  • cultural events and celebrations that involve the whole community
  • programs to promote entrepreneurship among immigrant or minority communities
  • participatory rural appraisal
  • registering and respecting indigenous land claims
  • sovereignty for first peoples
  • community-based forestry
  • joint forest management
  • community-based natural resource management
  • nature reserves
  • landscape-planning for conservation, allowing for habitat connectivity



  • Emergency services
  • Shelters and services for abused women
  • Shelters and services for abused children
  • Emergency relief in the case of natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, floods)
  • Emergency health-care services
  • Firefighting and related emergency services
  • Emergency interventions concerning violent crime
  • Long-term programs
  • Programs to empower women, children, men who have been traumatized (e.g., suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder)
  • Community-rebuilding in the wake of disaster (natural or man-made)
  • Structural defenses against disasters (e.g., levees against floods)
  • Social welfare programs
  • Retirement programs
  • Insurance (especially customer-owned, mutual insurance)
  • Reducing risks
  • Building methods that are resistant or resilient to, or reduce the hazards of
  • earthquakes
  • severe storms
  • floods
  • land or mudslides
  • Designing roads and transportation infrastructure to reduce traffic hazards
  • Clean water provision
  • Educational programs
  • Assurance of employment (e.g., as done by Mondragon cooperatives)
  • Addressing personal feelings of insecurity
  • meditative/contemplative methods
  • counseling programs
  • therapies
  • community-based programs




  • public health programs
  • community health initiatives
  • health education programs
  • water filtration systems for small communities and households
  • regulation of food additives; disclosure of additives present in food
  • research involving collaboration of doctors and patients
  • Health Commons: an approach to collaborative research and sharing of results
  • transparency and information sharing by hospitals and doctors
  • social science approaches to studying disease, and treatment of disease
  • approaches to healing disease that involve active participation of patients, that activate the patients' self healing capacities
  • WHO list of medicines that are the most essential and that are not patent-protected
  • public health insurance
  • customer-owned health insurance
  • health insurance scheme for musicians in Austin, Texas
  • artabana (mutual aid system in Germany)

Supportive relationships


Opportunities to learn:

  • Uses of informal means of teaching/learning in an open society
  • pluralistic media
  • media in the hands of small non-profit groups, of independent companies
  • media in the public interest
  • public airwaves accessible to the public (e.g., small radio or TV broadcasting stations)
  • Approaches in the context of formal education
  • flexible teaching formats, encouraging discussion, reflection, critical thinking etc.
  • service learning
  • internships
  • study abroad
  • interdisciplinary programs/classes/collaborations
  • team-teaching
  • co-curricular initiatives
  • integral teaching/learning that includes exploration of the inner self, meditation, contemplation, the arts, intuition, body/mind connection etc.
  • Free or subsidized public education
  • Barefoot College:
  • Reform schools, e.g. Waldorf schools
  • Home schooling and support structures for home schooling
  • Cooperative Schools owned by the teachers, or by a combination of teachers and students
  • Shared governance structures that allow faculty and students a prominent voice
  • Learning networks, peeragogy, communities of practice
  • Repositories of knowledge – libraries, museums, archives, the internet, databases
  • Libraries:
  • Scientific Commons:
  • Preserving historical sites, biological species, significant geological sites, etc.
  • Creating learning environments (nature trails with information tablets; same thing for landmarks or historical sites in cities, Stolpersteine…)

Meaningful livelihoods:

  • equal rights for women, oppressed ethnic or religious minorities, homosexuals, etc.
  • policies supporting SMEs
  • alternative currencies that can support independent livelihoods
  • education that supports individuals' quest for meaning in life
  • programs to support people transitioning to jobs they find more meaningful

Participation in decision-making:

  • Worker representation in companies
  • Unions
  • Worker cooperatives
  • Customer-cooperatives
  • Credit unions
  • Cooperative management methods and models
  • Cooperative currencies
  • Natural resource commons
  • Representative democracy
  • Voting methods (first-past-the-post, representative, etc)
  • Participatory budgeting
  • Participatory democracy
  • Public hearings
  • Participatory urban planning
  • Right to the city
  • Political mobilization methods (demonstrations, petitions, online mobilizations etc.)
  • Systemic consensusing
  • Sociocratic decision-making
  • Appreciative Inquiry
  • Art of hosting
  • Open Space conference methods
  • Mediation and conflict resolution
  • Civil rights
  • Legislation
  • Education
  • Strategies of empowerment


Contemplative/Spiritual connection


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