Educational Programs for Recycling and Repurposing of Solid Waste
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Recycling and Repurposing Solid Waste
Waste management is an important concern throughout the world. Sites for waste disposal are increasingly becoming limited, and improper management of waste leads to environmental degradation. Single-Stream recycling and waste management facilities are not accessible and affordable for all. While food waste can be composted, this option is unavailable for many types of solid waste such as clothing, plastics, paper, and glass. The improper disposal of solid waste that cannot decompose has contributed to environmental degradation.
However, such items need not just be thrown away. Reusing, Recycling, and Repurposing waste is a sustainable way to reduce the amount of waste that is produced by creating a new use or purpose for the material. This cuts down on the amount of waste that is produced; the waste actually can become a valuable resource for communities that is sustainable and is of little cost or free.
Context within NORA
Being at Home- The methods of waste disposal impact the area and home where one lives. Improper disposal of waste can lead to many (health) hazards in the home and environmental hazards in the surrounding area.
Self-expression- Repurposing waste allows for self-expression through arts and crafts. It allows the individual to think creatively to create a new purpose for waste or create art for decoration.
Opportunities to learn- the introduction of recycling and repurposing programs is a way to educate individuals on how they affect the environment and on new ways of managing their waste. Having education on this could eventually lead individuals to share this information with others.
Meaningful livelihoods- some individuals or groups are taking the opportunities to learn about recycling with the purpose of creating livelihoods for themselves and the communities they live in.
Participation-The individual who participates in recycling and repurposing is contributing to the effort toward sustainability. Democratic participation is often needed in order to ensure that waste id disposed of properly, without creating hazards.
Water- Waste management has an impact on marine water. Solid waste that is recyclable or reusable finds its way to bodies of water that are habitats for living things.
Land- increasing amounts of land are being used for waste disposal.
Physical, human-made assets- furniture, casings, plastics, paper, aluminum, etc., enter the solid waste stream. These materials and items can instead become resources by being reused, recycled, and repurposed.
Self-provisioning cluster - individuals and institutions reducing the amount of waste they produce and taking the initiative to reuse, recycle, and repurpose the items they have no use for.
Community solidarity cluster and Committed services or sales - Policies can encourage community efforts in reducing waste, such as recycling centers and thrift stores. This allows for these resources to be available and accessible in the community so that people will more likely decide to manage their waste in a sustainable way.
Understanding Current Patterns of Abundance and Scarcity
What is it?
The type of waste this wiki is focusing on is municipal solid waste and industrial solid waste that cannot be composted. The materials that typically make up these categories of solid waste are glass, plastics, paper, tin, metals, and cloth materials. In developed nations these items that are discarded are taken to a landfill that is reserved for municipal waste. These materials do not compost so they accumulate and the availability for more landfills and space to discard of waste is becoming limited. Waste management companies eventually export waste to poorer nations because most citizen in richer nations do not want to live in a close vicinity to waste sites. In many developing nations there is little to no regulation or resources for the disposal of waste. When waste is not regulated it is thrown into the environment, burned, or buried; waste also spreads into bodies of water. An example of how solid waste finds its way into the environment is the "garbage patch" in the pacific ocean. The "garbage patch" is a mass of plastic waste that is estimated to be twice the size of Texas that floats (Liddick, 2010). These plastics are ten consumed by the marine life in the pacific ocean and makes its way throughout the food chain. How we dispose of waste has an impact on the environment and the environment has an effect on all areas of our lives. Although waste cannot be eliminated completely the goal is to reduce the amount of waste production by reusing, recycling, and repurposing waste.
A study in Europe explained that one of the obstacles to waste management is bringing awareness to individual households (Odufuwa, 2012). This study recommended public educational programs that focused on waste disposal, management, accessibility to disposal sites, and waste separation.
Approaches to creating greater abundance
In 2007 Ohio’s government implemented an order to reduce waste and improve energy consumption state wide. Part of this plan was to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills by 75%. This plan was tested at the Department of Rehabilitation and Correction. The government created a three year sustainability plan; the staff and offenders created recycling programs and various grassroots projects. Along with the recycling project an environmental literacy program was implemented that gave offenders an understanding of why they were being sustainable and the effects they had on the environment and community. By eliminating trash bags and limiting the use of paper towels they were able to save $130,000 annually and by partnering with a local institution they were able to reach a goal of 98.2 percent waste free rate.
(Omofonmwan, Eseigbe, 2009)
(Odufuwa, B. A., Odufuwa, B. O., Ediale, O. M., & Oriola, S., 2012)
Sites within local areas for the disposal of solid waste that will not compost (electronics, chemicals, clothing, household appliances)
Strengths and Weaknesses
Sophia Breene, November 2013, How to recycle anything (the sustainable way)
Environmental Protection Agency (USA)
Kidhaven, 2012. Waste not, Want not: Seven greener ways to get rid of things
Art of Recycle, Guide to creative reuse and scrapstore centers worldwide
Check also the NORA page on Electronic Waste
Hildebrand, J. (2013). Ohio Implements Energy Conservation and Sustainability Initiatives. Corrections Today, 75(1), 40-48.
Liddick, D. (2010). The traffic in garbage and hazardous wastes: an overview. Trends In Organized Crime, 13(2/3), 134-146.
Odufuwa, B. A., Odufuwa, B. O., Ediale, O. M., & Oriola, S. (2012). Household Participation in Waste Disposal and Management in Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria. Journal Of Human Ecology, 40(3), 247-254.
Omfonmwan, S.I., & Eseigbe, J.O. (2009). Effects of Solid Waste on the Quality of Underground Water in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 26(2), 99-105.